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Heart - Wikipedia. Heart. The human heart. Details. System. Circulatory. Artery. Aorta. The heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest. Fish in contrast have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. These generate a current that causes contraction of the heart, traveling through the atrioventricular node and along the conduction system of the heart.
The heart receives blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation, which enters the right atrium from the superior and inferiorvenae cavae and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation.
The heart beats at a resting rate close to 7. Exercise temporarily increases the rate, but lowers resting heart rate in the long term, and is good for heart health. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death globally as of 2.
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Diagnosis of heart disease is often done by the taking of a medical history, listening to the heart- sounds with a stethoscope, ECG, and ultrasound. A double- membraned sac called the pericardium surrounds the heart and attaches to the mediastinum. The upper part of the heart is located at the level of the third costal cartilage. Because the heart is between the lungs, the left lung is smaller than the right lung and has a cardiac notch in its border to accommodate the heart. The atria open into the ventricles via the atrioventricular valves, present in the atrioventricular septum.
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Libidomax Review Tiny Penis Syndrome Libidomax Review Woman And Women Sex Libidomax Review Erectile Dysfunction Shake Trick Libidomax Review Dick Enhancement Doctors Nyc. Build a powerful, secure ecommerce storefront with our Online Store Software. Sell, promote, and grow with the 1ShoppingCart.com Online Store Builder. The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood provides the body with oxygen.
This distinction is visible also on the surface of the heart as the coronary sulcus. There is an ear- shaped structure in the upper right atrium called the right atrial appendage, or auricle, and another in the upper left atrium, the left atrial appendage. The right atrium and the right ventricle together are sometimes referred to as the right heart. Similarly, the left atrium and the left ventricle together are sometimes referred to as the left heart. The ventricles are separated from each other by the interventricular septum, visible on the surface of the heart as the anterior longitudinal sulcus and the posterior interventricular sulcus. The cardiac skeleton is made of dense connective tissue and this gives structure to the heart. It forms the atrioventricular septum which separates the atria from the ventricles, and the fibrous rings which serve as bases for the four heart valves.
The interatrial septum separates the atria and the interventricular septum separates the ventricles. The white arrows show the normal direction of blood flow. One valve lies between each atrium and ventricle, and one valve rests at the exit of each ventricle. Between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the tricuspid valve. The tricuspid valve has three cusps, which connect to chordae tendinae and three papillary muscles named the anterior, posterior, and septal muscles, after their relative positions. The mitral valve lies between the left atrium and left ventricle. It is also known as the bicuspid valve due to its having two cusps, an anterior and a posterior cusp.
These cusps are also attached via chordae tendinae to two papillary muscles projecting from the ventricular wall. The papillary muscles extend from the walls of the heart to valves by cartilaginous connections called chordae tendinae. These muscles prevent the valves from falling too far back when they close. As the heart chambers contract, so do the papillary muscles. This creates tension on the chordae tendineae, helping to hold the cusps of the atrioventricular valves in place and preventing them from being blown back into the atria. The pulmonary valve is located at the base of the pulmonary artery. This has three cusps which are not attached to any papillary muscles.
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When the ventricle relaxes blood flows back into the ventricle from the artery and this flow of blood fills the pocket- like valve, pressing against the cusps which close to seal the valve. The semilunar aortic valve is at the base of the aorta and also is not attached to papillary muscles. This too has three cusps which close with the pressure of the blood flowing back from the aorta.
A small amount of blood from the coronary circulation also drains into the right atrium via the coronary sinus, which is immediately above and to the middle of the opening of the inferior vena cava. In addition to these muscular ridges, a band of cardiac muscle, also covered by endocardium, known as the moderator band reinforces the thin walls of the right ventricle and plays a crucial role in cardiac conduction. It arises from the lower part of the interventricular septum and crosses the interior space of the right ventricle to connect with the inferior papillary muscle. The pulmonary trunk branches into the left and right pulmonary arteries that carry the blood to each lung. The pulmonary valve lies between the right heart and the pulmonary trunk.
The left atrium has an outpouching called the left atrial appendage. Like the right atrium, the left atrium is lined by pectinate muscles. Like the right ventricle, the left also has trabeculae carneae, but there is no moderator band. The left ventricle pumps blood to the body through the aortic valve and into the aorta. Two small openings above the aortic valve carry blood to the heart itself, the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.
These are surrounded by a double- membraned sac called the pericardium. The innermost layer of the heart is called the endocardium.
It is made up of a lining of simple squamous epithelium, and covers heart chambers and valves. It is continuous with the endothelium of the veins and arteries of the heart, and is joined to the myocardium with a thin layer of connective tissue.